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Products: UnitedHealth Group Incorporated (UNH)

UnitedHealthcare(UnitedHealthcare)
Optum(Optum)

UnitedHealth Group Incorporated

Through our diversified family of businesses, we leverage core competencies in data and health information; advanced technology; and clinical expertise. These core competencies are deployed within our two distinct, but strategically aligned, business platforms: health benefits operating under UnitedHealthcare and health services operating under Optum.

UnitedHealthcare provides health care benefits to an array of customers and markets. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual serves employers ranging from sole proprietorships to large, multi-site and national employers, public sector employers and individual consumers. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement delivers health and well-being benefits for Medicare beneficiaries and retirees. UnitedHealthcare Community & State manages health care benefit programs on behalf of state Medicaid and community programs and their participants. UnitedHealthcare Global includes the provision of health and dental benefits and hospital and clinical services to employer groups and individuals in South America, and other diversified global health businesses.

Optum is a health services business serving the broad health care marketplace, including payers, care providers, employers, governments, life sciences companies and consumers, through its OptumHealth, OptumInsight and OptumRx businesses. These businesses have dedicated units that help improve overall health system performance through optimizing care quality, reducing costs and improving consumer experience and care provider performance, leveraging distinctive capabilities in data and analytics, pharmacy care services, population health, health care delivery and health care operations.

Through UnitedHealthcare and Optum, in 2018, we processed more than three-quarters of a trillion dollars in gross billed charges and we managed more than $250 billion in aggregate health care spending on behalf of the customers and consumers we serve. Our revenues are derived from premiums on risk-based products; fees from management, administrative, technology and consulting services; sales of a wide variety of products and services related to the broad health care industry; and investment and other income. Our two business platforms have four reportable segments:

  • UnitedHealthcare, which includes UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement, UnitedHealthcare Community & State and UnitedHealthcare Global;

  • OptumHealth;

  • OptumInsight; and

  • OptumRx.

Competition

As a diversified health care company, we operate in highly competitive markets across the full expanse of health care benefits and services, including organizations ranging from startups to highly sophisticated Fortune 50 global enterprises, for-profit and non-profit companies, and private and government-sponsored entities. New entrants and business combinations also contribute to a dynamic and competitive environment. We compete fundamentally on the quality and value we provide to those we serve, which can include elements such as product and service innovation; use of technology; consumer and provider engagement and satisfaction; sales, marketing and pricing.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we employed 300,000 individuals.

UnitedHealthcare

Through its health benefits offerings, UnitedHealthcare is enabling better health, helping to control rising health care costs and creating a better health care experience for its customers. UnitedHealthcare’s market position is built on:

  • strong local-market relationships;

  • the breadth of product offerings, which are responsive to many distinct market segments in health care;

  • service and advanced technology, including digital consumer engagement;

  • competitive medical and operating cost positions;

  • effective clinical engagement;

  • extensive expertise in distinct market segments; and

  • innovation for customers and consumers.

UnitedHealthcare utilizes Optum’s capabilities to help coordinate patient care, improve affordability of medical care, analyze cost trends, manage pharmacy benefits, work with care providers more effectively and create a simpler consumer experience.

In the United States, UnitedHealthcare arranges for discounted access to care through networks that include 1.3 million physicians and other health care professionals and more than 6,000 hospitals and other facilities.

UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual

UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual offers an array of consumer-oriented health benefit plans and services nationwide for large national employers, public sector employers, mid-sized employers, small businesses, and individual consumers. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual provides access to medical services for 27 million people on behalf of our customers and alliance partners, including employer customers serving people across all 50 states, the District of Columbia and most U.S. territories. Products are offered through affiliates that are licensed as insurance companies, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), or third-party administrators (TPAs). Large employer groups typically use self-funded arrangements where UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual earns a service fee. Smaller employer groups and individuals are more likely to purchase risk-based products because they are less willing or unable to bear a greater potential liability for health care expenditures.

Through its risk-based product offerings, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual assumes the risk of both medical and administrative costs for its customers in return for a monthly premium, which is typically a fixed rate per individual served for a one-year period. When providing administrative and other management services to customers that elect to self-fund the health care costs of their employees and employees’ dependents, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual receives a fixed monthly service fee per individual served. These customers retain the risk of financing medical benefits for their employees and employees’ dependents, while UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual provides services such as coordination and facilitation of medical and related services to customers, consumers and health care professionals, administration of transaction processing and access to a contracted network of physicians, hospitals and other health care professionals, including dental and vision.

The consolidated purchasing capacity represented by the individuals served by UnitedHealth Group makes it possible for UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual to contract for cost-effective access to a large number of conveniently located care professionals and facilities. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual has relationships with network care providers that integrate data and analytics, implement value-based payments and care management programs, and enable us to jointly better manage health care and improve quality across populations.

UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual typically distributes its products through consultants or direct sales in the larger employer and public sector segments. In the smaller group segment of the commercial marketplace, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual’s distribution system consists primarily of direct sales and sales through collaboration with brokers and agents. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual also distributes products through wholesale agents or agencies that contract with health insurance carriers to distribute individual or group benefits and provide other related services to their customers. In addition, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual distributes its products through professional employer organizations, associations and through both multi-carrier and its own proprietary private exchange marketplaces.

UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual’s diverse product portfolio offers employers a continuum of benefit designs, price points and approaches to consumer engagement, which provides the flexibility to meet a full spectrum of their coverage needs.

UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual’s major product families include:

Traditional Products. Traditional products include a full range of medical benefits and network options, and offer a spectrum of covered services, including preventive care, direct access to specialists and catastrophic protection.

Consumer Engagement Products. Consumer engagement products couple plan design with financial accounts to increase individuals’ responsibility for their health and well-being. This suite of products includes high-deductible consumer-driven benefit plans, which include health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), health savings accounts (HSAs) and consumer engagement services such as personalized behavioral incentive programs, consumer education and other digital offerings.

Clinical and Pharmacy Products. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual offers a comprehensive suite of clinical and pharmacy care services products, which complement its service offerings by improving quality of care, engaging consumers and providing cost-saving options. Consumers served by UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual can access clinical products that help them make better health care decisions and better use of their medical benefits, which contribute to improved health and lowered medical expenses.

Each medical plan has a core set of clinical programs embedded in the offering, with additional services available depending on offering type (risk-based or self-funded), line of business (e.g., small business, key accounts, public sector, national accounts or individual consumers) and clinical need. UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual’s clinical programs include:

  • wellness programs;

  • decision support;

  • utilization management;

  • case and disease management;

  • complex condition management;

  • on-site programs, including biometrics and flu shots;

  • incentives to reinforce positive behavior change;

  • mental health/substance use disorder management; and

  • employee assistance programs.

UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual’s comprehensive and integrated pharmacy care services promote lower costs by using formulary programs to produce better unit costs, encouraging consumers to use drugs that offer improved value and outcomes, helping consumers take actions to improve their health and supporting the appropriate use of drugs based on clinical evidence through physician and consumer education programs.

Specialty Offerings. Through its broad network, UnitedHealthcare Employer & Individual delivers dental, vision, hearing, life, transportation, critical illness and disability product offerings using an integrated approach in private and retail settings.

UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement

UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement provides health and well-being services to individuals age 50 and older, addressing their unique needs for preventive and acute health care services, as well as services dealing with chronic disease and other specialized issues common among older people. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement is fully dedicated to serving this growing senior market segment, providing products and services in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and most U.S. territories. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement has distinct pricing, underwriting, clinical program management and marketing capabilities dedicated to health products and services in this market.

UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement offers a selection of products that allow people to obtain the health coverage and services they need as their circumstances change. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement is positioned to serve seniors who find that affordable, network-based care provided through Medicare Advantage plans meets their unique health care needs. For those who prefer traditional fee-for-service Medicare, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement offers both Medicare Supplement and Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit (Medicare Part D) prescription drug programs that supplement their government-sponsored Medicare by providing additional benefits and coverage options. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement services include care management and clinical management programs, a nurse health line service, 24-hour access to health care information, access to discounted health services from a network of care providers and administrative services.

UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement has extensive distribution capabilities and experience, including direct marketing to consumers on behalf of its key clients, including AARP, the nation’s largest membership organization dedicated to the needs of people age 50 and over, and state and U.S. government agencies. Products are also offered through employer groups and agent channels.

UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement’s major product categories include:

Medicare Advantage. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement provides health care coverage for seniors and other eligible Medicare beneficiaries primarily through the Medicare Advantage program administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), including Medicare Advantage HMO plans, preferred provider organization (PPO) plans, Point-of-Service plans, Private-Fee-for-Service plans and Special Needs Plans (SNPs). Under the Medicare Advantage program, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement provides health insurance coverage in exchange for a fixed monthly premium per member from CMS plus, in some cases, monthly consumer premiums. Premium amounts received from CMS vary based on the geographic areas in which individuals reside; demographic factors such as age, gender and institutionalized status; and the health status of the individual. Medicare Advantage plans are designed to compete at the local level, taking into account consumer and care provider preferences, competitor offerings, our quality and cost initiatives, our historical financial results and the long-term payment rate outlook for each geographic area. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement served 4.9 million people through its Medicare Advantage products as of December 31, 2018.

Built on more than 20 years of experience, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement’s senior-focused care management model operates at a medical cost level below that of traditional Medicare, while helping seniors live healthier lives. Through our HouseCalls program, nurse practitioners performed 1.5 million in-home preventive care visits in 2018 to address unmet care opportunities and close gaps in care. Our Navigate4Me program provides a single point of contact and a direct line of support for individuals as they go through their health care experiences. For high-risk patients in certain care settings and programs, UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement uses proprietary, automated medical record software that enables clinical care teams

to capture and track patient data and clinical encounters, creating a comprehensive set of care information that bridges across home, hospital and nursing home care settings. Proprietary predictive modeling tools help identify people at high risk and enable care managers to create individualized care plans that help them obtain the right care, in the right place, at the right time.

Medicare Part D. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement provides Medicare Part D benefits to beneficiaries throughout the United States and its territories through its Medicare Advantage and stand-alone Medicare Part D plans. The stand-alone Medicare Part D plans address a large spectrum of people’s needs and preferences for their prescription drug coverage, including low-cost prescription options. Each of the plans includes the majority of the drugs covered by Medicare and provides varying levels of coverage to meet the diverse needs of Medicare beneficiaries. As of December 31, 2018, UnitedHealthcare enrolled 9.0 million people in the Medicare Part D programs, including 4.7 million individuals in the stand-alone Medicare Part D plans, with the remainder in Medicare Advantage plans incorporating Medicare Part D coverage.

Medicare Supplement. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement is currently serving 4.9 million seniors nationwide through various Medicare Supplement products in association with AARP. UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement offers a full range of supplemental products at a diversity of price points. These products cover various levels of coinsurance and deductible gaps that seniors are exposed to in the traditional Medicare program.

Premium revenues from CMS represented 30% of UnitedHealth Group’s total consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018, most of which were generated by UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement.

UnitedHealthcare Community & State

UnitedHealthcare Community & State is dedicated to serving state programs that care for the economically disadvantaged, the medically underserved and people without the benefit of employer-funded health care coverage, in exchange for a monthly premium per member from the state program. In some cases, these premiums are subject to experience or risk adjustments. UnitedHealthcare Community & State’s primary customers oversee Medicaid plans, including Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Children’s Health Insurance Programs (CHIP), Dual SNPs (DSNPs), Aged, Blind and Disabled and other federal, state and community health care programs. As of December 31, 2018, UnitedHealthcare Community & State participated in programs in 30 states and the District of Columbia, and served 6.5 million people; including 1 million people through Medicaid expansion programs in 15 states under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA).

States using managed care services for Medicaid beneficiaries select health plans by using a formal bid process or by awarding individual contracts. A number of factors are considered by UnitedHealthcare Community & State when choosing programs for participation, including the state’s commitment and consistency of support for its Medicaid managed care program in terms of service, innovation and funding; the eligible population base, both immediate and long term; and the structure of the projected program. UnitedHealthcare Community & State works with its state customers to advocate for actuarially sound rates, commensurate with medical cost trends.

These health plans and care programs are designed to address the complex needs of the populations they serve, including the chronically ill, people with disabilities and people with a higher risk of medical, behavioral and social conditions. UnitedHealthcare Community & State administers benefits for the unique needs of children, pregnant women, adults, seniors and those who are institutionalized or are nursing home eligible. These individuals often live in areas that are medically underserved and are less likely to have a consistent relationship with the medical community or a care provider. They also often face significant social and economic challenges.

UnitedHealthcare Community & State leverages the national capabilities of UnitedHealth Group locally, supporting effective care management, strong regulatory partnerships, greater administrative efficiency, improved clinical outcomes and the ability to adapt to a changing national and local market environment. UnitedHealthcare Community & State coordinates resources among family, physicians, other health care providers, and government and community-based agencies and organizations to facilitate continuous and effective care and often addresses other social determinants that can affect people’s health status and health system usage.

Approximately 75% of the people in state Medicaid programs are served by managed care, but this population represents only 50% of total Medicaid spending. UnitedHealthcare Community & State’s business development opportunities include entering fee-for-service markets converting to managed care, which represents a population of nearly 8 million people; and growing in existing managed care markets, including state expansions to populations with more complex needs requiring more sophisticated models of care. This expansion includes integrated care management of physical, behavioral, long-term care services and supports, and social services by applying strong data analytics and community-based collaboration.

UnitedHealthcare Community & State continues to evolve its clinical model to enhance quality and the clinical experience for the people it serves. The model enables UnitedHealthcare Community & State to quickly identify the people who could benefit most from more highly coordinated care; typically, the 5% who are most at risk drive over 50% of states’ medical costs.

UnitedHealthcare Global

UnitedHealthcare Global serves 6.2 million people with medical benefits, residing principally in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru but also in more than 130 other countries. UnitedHealthcare Global owns and operates more than 300 hospitals, specialty centers, primary care and emergency services clinics in South America and Portugal. UnitedHealthcare Global provides a comprehensive range of health and mobilization capabilities and supports the health systems of individual nations with support for improving health care financing and delivery. Clients include multi-national and local businesses, governments and individual consumers around the world.

Global Markets. UnitedHealthcare Global serves local populations in select markets around the world, primarily in Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Peru; and Portugal, by touching nearly every aspect of health care and leveraging expertise in clinical care management and health care data to improve outcomes, raise quality and constrain costs.

In Brazil, Amil provides health benefits to 4.1 million people through a broad network of owned and affiliated clinics, hospitals and care providers. Dental benefits are also provided to 2.2 million people. Amil’s members have access to a provider network of physicians and other health care professionals, hospitals, laboratories and diagnostic imaging centers. Americas Serviços Médicos offers health care delivery in Brazil through hospitals, ambulatory clinics and surgery centers to Amil members and consumers served by the external payer market.

Empresas Banmédica provides health benefits and health care services to 2.1 million people in Chile, Colombia and Peru through a network of owned and affiliated clinics, hospitals and care providers. Empresas Banmédica owns and operates hospitals, clinics and outpatient centers.

Lusíadas Saúde provides clinical services to people in Portugal through an owned network of hospitals and outpatient clinics.

Global Solutions. UnitedHealthcare Global includes other diversified global health services with a variety of offerings for international customers.

Optum

Optum is a technology-enabled health services business serving the broad health care marketplace, including:

  • Those who need care: the consumers who need the right support, information, resources and products to achieve their health goals.

  • Those who provide care: pharmacies, hospitals, physicians, practices and other health care facilities seeking to modernize the health system and support the best possible patient care and experiences.

  • Those who pay for care: employers, health plans, and state, federal and municipal agencies devoted to ensuring the populations they sponsor receive high-quality care, administered and delivered efficiently and effectively.

  • Those who innovate for care: global life sciences organizations dedicated to developing more effective approaches to care, enabling technologies and medicines that improve care delivery and health outcomes.

Optum operates three business segments leveraging distinctive capabilities in data and analytics, pharmacy care services, population health, health care delivery and health care operations:

  • OptumHealth focuses on care delivery, care management, wellness and consumer engagement, and health financial services;

  • OptumInsight specializes in data and analytics and other health care information technology services, and delivers operational services and support; and

  • OptumRx provides pharmacy care services.

OptumHealth

OptumHealth is a diversified health and wellness business serving the physical, emotional and health-related financial needs of 93 million unique individuals. OptumHealth enables population health through programs offered by employers, payers, government entities and directly with the care delivery system. OptumHealth products and services deliver value by improving quality and patient satisfaction while lowering cost. OptumHealth builds high-performing networks and centers of excellence across the care continuum, by working directly with physicians to advance population health and by coordinating care for the most medically complex patients.

OptumHealth serves patients and care providers through its local ambulatory care services business and delivers care through a physician-led, patient-centric and data-driven organization comprised of more than 35,000 employed, managed or contracted physicians. OptumHealth also enables care providers’ transition from traditional, fee-for-service care delivery to performance-based delivery and payment models that improve the focus on patient health and outcomes, such as those emerging through

accountable care organizations (ACOs) and local care provider partnerships. Through strategic partnerships, alliances and ownership arrangements, OptumHealth helps care providers adopt new approaches and technologies that improve the coordination of care across all providers involved in patient care. MedExpress’ neighborhood care centers provide urgent and walk-in care services with a consumer-friendly approach and Surgical Care Affiliates’ independent ambulatory surgical centers and surgical hospitals provide high-value surgical services at a substantially lower cost than a traditional in-patient hospital setting.

OptumServe provides a wide range of health services specifically tailored to active military and veterans and the agencies that support them.

OptumHealth serves people through population health services that meet both the preventive care and health intervention needs of consumers across the care continuum - physical health and wellness, mental health, complex medical conditions, disease management, hospitalization and post-acute care. This includes offering access to proprietary networks of provider specialists in many clinical specialties, including behavioral health, organ transplant, chiropractic and physical therapy. OptumHealth engages consumers in managing their health, including guidance, tools and programs that help them achieve their health goals and maintain healthy lifestyles.

Optum Financial Services, through Optum Bank, a wholly-owned subsidiary, serves consumers through 5.2 million health savings and other accounts approaching $10 billion in assets under management as of December 31, 2018. During 2018, Optum Bank processed nearly $160 billion in digital medical payments to physicians and other health care providers. Organizations across the health system rely on Optum to manage and improve payment flows through its highly automated, scalable, digital payment systems.

OptumHealth offers its products on a risk basis, where it assumes responsibility for health care costs in exchange for a monthly premium per individual served, on an administrative fee basis, under which it manages or administers delivery of the products or services in exchange for a fixed monthly fee per individual served, or on a fee-for-service basis, where it delivers medical services to patients in exchange for a contracted fee. For its financial services offerings, OptumHealth charges fees and earns investment income on managed funds.

OptumHealth sells its products primarily through its direct sales force, strategic collaborations and external producers in three markets: employers (which includes the sub-markets of large, mid-sized and small employers), payers (which includes the sub-markets of health plans, TPAs, underwriter/stop-loss carriers and individual market intermediaries) and government entities (which includes states, CMS, the Department of Defense, the Veterans Administration and other federal procurement agencies).

OptumInsight

OptumInsight provides services, technology and health care expertise to major participants in the health care industry. OptumInsight’s capabilities are focused on technology, research and consulting and managed services that help improve the quality of care and drive greater efficiency in the health care system. Technology includes population health and risk analytics, administrative and clinical technology for claims editing, risk adjustment and payment integrity, health information and electronic data exchange and technology strategy and management. Research and consulting helps organizations reduce administrative costs and implement best practices to improve clinical performance. Managed services provides solutions such as revenue cycle management, risk analytics, payment integrity outsourcing and state Medicaid data and technology management. Hospital systems, physicians, health plans, governments, life sciences companies and other organizations that comprise the health care industry depend on OptumInsight to help them improve performance, achieve efficiency, reduce costs, advance quality, meet compliance mandates and modernize their core operating systems to meet the changing needs of the health system.

Many of OptumInsight’s software and information products and professional services are delivered over extended periods, often several years. OptumInsight maintains an order backlog to track unearned revenues under these long-term arrangements. The backlog consists of estimated revenue from signed contracts, other legally binding agreements and anticipated contract renewals based on historical experience with OptumInsight’s customers. OptumInsight’s aggregate backlog at December 31, 2018 was $17.0 billion, of which $8.6 billion is expected to be realized within the next 12 months. The aggregate backlog includes $6.2 billion related to intersegment agreements. OptumInsight’s aggregate backlog at December 31, 2017, was $15.0 billion. OptumInsight cannot provide any assurance that it will be able to realize all of the revenues included in the backlog due to uncertainties with regard to the timing and scope of services and the potential for cancellation, non-renewal or early termination of service arrangements.

OptumInsight’s products and services are sold primarily through a direct sales force. OptumInsight’s products are also supported and distributed through an array of alliances and business partnerships with other technology vendors, who integrate and interface OptumInsight’s products with their applications.

OptumInsight believes it is well positioned to address the needs of four primary market segments: care providers (e.g., physicians and hospital systems), health plans, governments and life sciences companies.

Care Providers. Serving more than four out of five U.S. hospitals and more than 100,000 physicians, OptumInsight assists care providers in meeting their challenge to improve patient outcomes and care amid changing payment models and pressures. OptumInsight brings a broad array of solutions to help care providers meet these challenges, with particular focus on clinical performance and quality improvement, population health, data management and analytics, revenue management, cost containment, compliance, cloud-enabled collaboration and consumer engagement.

Health Plans. OptumInsight serves three out of four U.S. health plans through cost-effective, technology-enabled solutions that help them improve efficiency, understand and optimize growth while managing risk, deliver on clinical performance and compliance goals, and build and manage strong networks of care.

Governments. OptumInsight provides services tailored to government payers, including data and analytics technology, claims management and payment accuracy services, and strategic consulting.

Life Sciences. OptumInsight provides services to global life sciences companies. These companies look to OptumInsight for data, analytics and expertise in core areas of health economics and outcomes research, market access consulting, integrated clinical and health care claims data and informatics services, epidemiology and drug safety, and patient reported outcomes.

OptumRx

OptumRx provides a full spectrum of pharmacy care services to 65 million people in the United States through its network of more than 67,000 retail pharmacies, multiple home delivery, specialty and compounding pharmacies and through the provision of home infusion services. In 2018, OptumRx added capabilities in managing limited and ultra-limited distribution drugs in oncology, HIV, pain management and ophthalmology as well as capabilities to serve the growing pharmacy needs of people with behavioral health and substance use disorders, particularly Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries.

OptumRx’s comprehensive whole-person approach to pharmacy care services integrates demographic, medical, laboratory, pharmaceutical and other clinical data and applies analytics to drive clinical care insight to support care treatments and compliance, benefiting clients and individual consumers through enhanced services, elevated clinical quality and cost trend management.

In 2018, OptumRx managed $91 billion in pharmaceutical spending, including $40 billion in specialty pharmaceutical spending.

OptumRx provides pharmacy care services to a number of health plans, including a substantial majority of UnitedHealthcare members, large national employer plans, unions and trusts and government entities. OptumRx’s distribution system consists primarily of health insurance brokers and other health care consultants and direct sales.

OptumRx offers multiple clinical programs and services to help clients manage overall pharmacy and health care costs in a clinically appropriate manner, which are designed to promote good health outcomes, and to help target inappropriate utilization and non-adherence to medication, each of which may result in adverse medical events that affect member health and client pharmacy and medical spend. OptumRx provides various utilization management, medication management, quality assurance, adherence and counseling programs to complement the client’s plan design and clinical strategies. OptumRx offers a distinctive approach to integrating the management of medical and pharmaceutical care, using data and advanced analytics to help improve comprehensive decision-making, elevate quality, close gaps in care and reduce costs for customers and members.

As of December 31, 2018, OptumRx operated four home delivery pharmacies in the United States, which provide patients with access to maintenance medications and enables OptumRx to manage clients’ drug costs through operating efficiencies and economies of scale. As of December 31, 2018, OptumRx’s specialty pharmacy operations included more than 70 specialty and infusion pharmacies located throughout the United States that are used for delivery of advanced medications to people with chronic or genetic diseases and disorders. OptumRx also operates community mental health facility pharmacies, which help align benefits, care management and pharmacy services for those living with complex, chronic medical and behavioral health issues.

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